P-Phenylenediamine known as “coal tar dye” is an organic compound derived from benzene. It has a boiling point of 267 °C and a melting point of 145 °C.-147 °C and has a slight aroma. P-Phenylenediamine is also called as P-diamine benzene, 1-4 diamonibenzene, pelagol D, renal PF, futramine D, etc. P-Phenylenediamine has applications in engineering polymers, composites, aramid fibers, rubber chemicals, Textile dyes etc. Additionally, PPD is used in all kind of permanent hair dyes and tattoos. PPD is used for eczema patient’s diagnostic patch testing due to its potential skin sensitizing properties. PPD dissolves in water, alcohol and ether and partially in chloroform; it is highly reactive to oxygen. It is originally colorless and turns black when exposed to oxygen/air. PPD tends to be allergic only when oxidization is in process.
The low toxic, temperature stable nature of P-Phenylenediamine makes it preferable to be used in hair dyes; it gives natural color which does not fade easily with washing or drying. PPD is commonly used in rubber manufacturing because of its high temperature stability, chemical as well as electrical resistance and high strength. The rubber industry faces a major problem of cracking due to oxygen and flexing, caused by the presence of ozone in oxygen. Derivatives of P-phenylenediamine called antiozonants have been developed that curb the effect of ozone on rubber, and prevent the rubber from cracking. P-Phenylenediamine is known to be an allergen for humans on prolonged exposure. Individuals coming in frequent contact with PPD are prone to skin allergies. High exposure to PPD may cause convulsions, tremors, vertigo, renal failure, gastritis, asthma, eye irritation and tearing, dermatitis, coma, etc. However, textile dyes which have dried completely produce no allergic reaction.
Industry participants include DuPont, Bayer, Lanxess, Alashan Lixin Chemical Co, Chemos Gmbh, Shanghai Fchemicals Technology Co., Ltd., Jinan Haohua Industry Co, Afine Chemicals, Haihang Industry Co, Boc Sciences, Aopharm, Capot Chemical, Atomax Chemical, Lonsen, Rui Yuan, Chizhou Fangda, Taixing Shangshi, YSH, Company C, Yixing Xinyu, Anhui Xianglong, Suzhou Luosen, Tejin Chemicals, Zylexa Pharma, Zerenex Molecular, Vitas-M, Tractus Company Limited, TCI, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Pharmten, OXChem, NovoChemy, MP Biomedicals, Molport, Merck Millipore, Letopharm, King Scientific, Jalor-Chem, J & K Scientific, InterBioScreen, GFS Chemicals, Finetech Industry, eNovation Chemicals, Enamine, DSL Chemicals, Conier Chem, Chemstep, Chempacific, Chemik, Chembo Pharma, Carbosynth, Capot Chemical, Bide Pharmatech, BePharm, ASDI, ArkPharm Inc, Apollo Scientific ltd, AOKChem, Anward, Annova Chem, Angene, Alfa Chemistry, Alfa Aesar, AK Scientific, etc.
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