Diseases or illness now a day is directly or indirectly attributed to problems with apoptosis which is a programmed cell-death mechanism. Continuous research and development technologies including identification of drugs such as chemo sensitizers, radio sensitizers, anti-inflammatory agents targeting apoptosis inducing pathways for achievement of unmet clinical needs is the major driver for apoptosis market. Defective mechanism of apoptosis leads to progression of many disorders either by cell accumulation or cell loss. Increasing prevalence of chronic conditions such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, HIV infection, organ transplant rejection and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome followed by growing demand for healthcare services is expected to develop apoptosis based therapies. Identification of target genes and their products that are responsible for apoptosis has laid foundation for discovery and development of new drugs, which are undergoing human clinical trials. Research of apoptosis inducing pathways as treatment to cancer is one of the emerging therapies in coming decades. Tumors treated with cyto-toxins and radiation show increasing rate of apoptosis which is further anticipated to increase rate of apoptosis used to treat cancers over the forecast period. Cell morphological changes during apoptosis involve chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation with rounding up of the cell, retraction of pseudopodes, reduction in cellular volume (pyknosis), membrane blebbing, ultrastrutural modification of cytoplasmic organelles and a loss of membrane integrity. Major restraints for apoptosis market are side effect to normal cells while targeting cancer cells and high investment required for research and development in this area. The drugs need to pass critical tests before they can be used on human subjects.
Apoptosis market is segmented on basis of types of therapies used for treatment and apoptogens. Methods involved are gene based therapy, drug based therapy, immunotherapy. Key participant proteins active in apoptotic pathway have been identified which are potential target for development of therapeutic strategies. Gene based therapy involves targeting a specific family of anti apoptotic genes such as Bcl2, p53 Bad, Bax etc. It consists of targeting the proteins synthesized or the expression of the synthesized proteins and silencing the functional domain of the gene leading to non expression of anti apoptotic proteins. Drug based therapy includes small molecules which are mostly analogues of potent cytotoxic drugs or antagonists for family of anti apoptotic proteins which result in selective apoptosis in tumour cells, inhibition of cell proliferation and complete tumor growth inhibition. Immune based therapy is a new idea and still is in its developmental stage. Another potential anticancer agent is TRAIL (The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand). TRAIL related apoptosis pathway face resistance at various points. Increasing needs for research in this domain to overcome the resistance in use of TRAIL for anticancer therapy. The market is also segmented on type of apoptogens. They include direct apoptogens, first generation indirect apoptogens and second generation indirect apoptogens. Direct apoptogens are drugs which are known to induce apoptosis as they possess apoptosis related molecular targets. First generation indirect apoptogens are drugs having apoptosis as part of their efficacy. They are mostly cytotoxic in nature. Second generations are those drugs that have non apoptotic targets which show apoptotic effects.
North America held the largest share for this market due to growing healthcare investment in this area and availability of infrastructure required for research and development of apoptosis related therapeutics. Europe is expected to retain its position due to rising potential target population and growing incidence of cancer and other degenerative disorders coupled with unmet clinical treatment. Asia Pacific is expected to show a lucrative growth rate in the coming seven years due to the increasing R&D initiatives by the manufacturers coupled with growing government initiatives pertaining to the apopstosis.
The availability for apoptosis related products such as drugs, kits and reagents has increased in last decade. Companies which are actively involved in research and development of apoptosis market are Aegera therapeutics Inc, Amgen Inc, Apicept Corporation, Chromo Therapeutics Limited, Genta Inc., Infinity Pharmaceuticals Inc., Pfizer Inc, Abbott Laboratories, Zentaris GmbH, EntreMed Inc, Bioniche Life Sciences Inc, Xigen SA,Celgene Corporation, Exelixes Inc and Novartis Limited.
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