We all must have experienced, or at least seen commuters using some form of cards, or only their phones, to get access to mass transit vehicles, such as Metros. What exactly is that process, and how did the user avail the transport service without the hassle of buying tickets physically? That, friends, is the work of an Automated Fare Collection (AFC) system. The Automated Fare Collection system consists of automatic ticket vending, ticket checking, & gate machines. It is a smartcard-based contactless back-to-back solution for payments and fare collection.
In today’s day, majority of the households in the developing and developed economies own and understand the workings of a washing machine. Simply put, they make the process of washing clothes much easier. Gone are the days when people would continue scrubbing on a piece of cloth to wash the stains away, a process that consumed both time and energy. Washing machines have provided much relief to the people by doing all the dirty work itself.
In recent years, the world has been facing serious issues such as shortage of energy supply, climate change, and fluctuating energy costs. Energy conservation has become the name of the game, and this fact is not lost on organizations and institutions. It is widely accepted that as the prices of basic raw materials go on increasing, the costs of energy consumption are also going to increase.
Drugs are the first line therapy for almost every small or major illness. With the concept of drugs comes the term drug delivery systems, which can be said of as a device or a formulation that is be used to introduce a therapeutic substance within the body. The said device or formulation helps in optimizing effectiveness of the drug within the body. A common example can be taken of as nasal spray, which is most commonly used by people suffering from nasal congestion.
Oral diseases affect around 3.9 billion people across the globe, and untreated tooth decay affects around 45% of the world’s population. Rising forms of oral diseases such as gingivitis, periodontitis, thrush and cavities are noticeably prevalent among the general public. Gum diseases are painful and hamper overall appearance of any person.
Air core drilling is a method wherein hardened steels or blades are used to bore a hole in an unconsolidated formation. Air core drilling can reach a depth of 300 meters which is great for mineral mining. The air core drill bit has three blades which cut the soft rock formations, thereby removing the drill cuttings by injecting air into the hole through the annular area between the drill rod and inner tube. Basically, the technique is a part of shallow drilling requiring minimal site preparation.
Drones for agriculture? Sounds a little far-fetched, but believe it or not, they are proving very useful for farmers to monitor their properties. Also, with drones finding application in an extraordinary number of fields, the idea does not sound off. The real question though is, will federal rules support or hamper the growth of this industry? That’s something we will have to wait and see.
Conservation of energy is something that we hear about, or speak about, every other day. However, most fail to implement it in practice, if only due to habitual negligence gained over years of over-dependence on it. However, today the concept has been ‘re-energized’, with calls to harness non-conventional energy sources and protect the conventional ones.
Qatar, which is the world’s largest Liquefied Natural Gas exporter, has recently finished the process of commissioning the largest carbon dioxide (CO2) recovery and sequestration facility in Middle East and North Africa, with Ras Laffan, an industrial hub in Qatar, being chosen as the facility location. The planned CO2 capacity is 2.1 million tons per year. The nation plans to use CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).
LiDAR or LADAR stands for ’Light Imaging, Detection, And Ranging’ or ’Light Detection And Ranging’. It is a surveying technique that calculates the distance to targeted objects by illuminating them using laser light. It is commonly used for making high-resolution maps and has several applications in geomatics, geodesy, archaeology, geology, and geography.
The complete value chain of the cold-end exhaust systems market is a constricted industry segment-related chain with an interconnection between several players coupled with a flow of value in the form of services and goods. The entire value chain for the exhaust system industry, when classified into industry segments, comprises two major streams, namely the core industry and supporting industry segments.
An ATM, short for Automated Teller Machine, is an electronic telecommunications setup aimed to assist financial institution customers in performing financial transactions such as deposits and withdrawal, account information and transfer of funds, without the physical involvement of bank staff.
Armored vehicles are protected by very strong armor and generally armed with robust weapons which combine defensive, tactical offensive and operation mobility capabilities which can be tracked easily. Some of the most known types of armor vehicles include tanks, flame tank, infantry tank, armored car, aerosani, reconnaissance vehicle, mortar carrier, multiple rocket launcher, improvised fighting vehicle, armored personnel carrier, infantry fighting vehicle, tankette, air defense vehicles, self-propelled artillery, amphibious vehicle, armored engineering vehicle, tank destroyer and armored train.
Cord blood is the blood that is left post-delivery in the placenta and umbilical cord. Cord blood is collected from umbilical cord just after the child is born. It is a rich source of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a range of cell types. Cord blood banking services involve the collection of cord blood and cryogenically freezing the stem cells, as well as other immune system cells, so that they can be preserved for medical uses in future.
Activated carbon, also known as activated charcoal, is a porous form of carbon which is made by processing with oxygen. It is in a non-graphite carbon form which is produced from any carbonaceous material such as coconut shell, paddy husk, wood, lignite, coir pith, coal, etc.
Natural gas is one of the most rapidly growing forms of energy and has made its presence felt significantly in the global energy market. It has been rapidly catching up with crude oil as a fuel alternative because of its cleaner existence. Natural gas has been able to successfully penetrate the transportation and domestic application markets, thus helping it evolve as the primary global fuel.
Vanillin is a key aromatic compound extensively used to enhance the aroma and flavor of the various end-use products. It is the principal aroma and flavor compound in vanilla beans. It is also found in ‘Leptotes bicolor’, an orchid species found in Paraguay and Southern Brazil as well as the Southern Chinese red pine. Based on how it is produced, it can be classified into Pure, Natural & Synthetic. Vanillin comes in two forms - liquid and powdered.
Fuel cells are devices which convert the fuel’s chemical energy into electricity via a chemical reaction in the presence of an oxidizing agent. They can be of different types, but they all consist of an anode, cathode, as well as an electrolyte. They use hydrogen or other hydrocarbon fuels which are available in abundance, along with an oxidant (usually oxygen), to carry out an electrochemical reaction. This makes them one of the fastest growing alternate backup power options.
An ‘Intelligent Transportation System’ improves the performance of a transportation network, enables multimodal transport, optimizes fuel consumption and helps reducing risk of road accidents. It achieves this by integrating the transportation network with ICT (Information and Communications Technology). The system can also be extended for rail, water and air transport and navigation systems. Real-time data is collected through sensors, video surveillance devices, navigation systems and vehicle probes and it is further analyzed and communicated to the user via internet, dynamic sign boards, mobile telephony, etc.
In-vitro diagnostics is a type of medical test to help detect and diagnose diseases or infections and determine a course of treatment, under a controlled environment such as a laboratory. The tests may be conducted on either urine, blood or a human body tissue. Patients undergoing these tests may either receive or decline further medical care, thus making the reliability of these tests extremely crucial.
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