The global human rabies vaccines market is expected to witness robust growth over the forecast period. Increasing global incidences of mortality due to rabies, growing issue of stray dogs in countries with low economic development, rising number of pets, lack of pet management services, low immunization rates in pets, and rising friendliness with pets are drivers estimated to boost growth of human rabies vaccines market. In addition, an increase in geriatric population base with decreased immunity is also anticipated to increase market growth.
According to the WHO, around 99% of rabies cases reported in 2015 were from domestic dogs. Other animals leading to rabies infection can be wild dogs, bats, foxes, raccoons, cats, and skunks. Bites, contact with saliva, and scratches by these animals are considered as the main causes of rabies infection. Most of the rabies-related deaths in the U.S are caused by bats. Low economic and rural regions have most number of rabies cases. Over 40% of patients suffering from rabies are children under 15 years of age.
Rabies is diagnosed in animals as well as humans after onset of specific symptoms such as hydrophobia (fear of water) or aerophobia (difficulty in respiration). These symptoms that occur at the later stage of infection may lead to fatal effects and hence an HRV needs to be administered immediately after being bitten by rabid animals, even if these symptoms are not seen.
Human rabies vaccine can be administered in patients suffering from the following types of rabies
In livid rabies, patients show hyperactivity, hydrophobia, and aerophobia and after few days, death occurs due to cardio respiratory arrest
Paralytic rabies has a longer course than the livid form. The muscle at the wound site gets paralyzed. Then, slowly coma develops leading to death. This form is often misdiagnosed. It accounts for 30% of the total human cases.
Human rabies vaccine on the basis of product can be segmented into following segments:
Pre-exposure vaccination: It is given to those, who are prone to rabies like veterinarians, wildlife officers, and people traveling to other countries, where there is an increased risk of rabies infection. Pre-exposure vaccination is recommended in regions, where medical care is estimated to be limited after rabies infection and when there is a shortage of vaccines.
Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP): It is given after an animal bite or contact with the animal suspected to be rabid. Immediate medical care is essential in such cases. The vaccination depends on the type of contact with rabid animal. Every year, over 15 million people around the world receive this vaccination leading to prevention of rabies-related deaths.
PEP involves certain vaccines like Human Rabies Immune Globulin (HRIG), Human Diploid Cell Vaccine (HDCV), and Purified Chick Embryo Cell Vaccine (PCEC).
The human rabies vaccines market is segmented geographically in North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa. North America is estimated to dominate the market owing to high awareness levels among healthcare professionals, established healthcare infrastructure, high disposable income, and high government initiatives pertaining to awareness of rabies. The U.S. has been reported to be successful in eliminating canine rabies, which spreads from dogs to dogs. Europe is anticipated to follow North America with a close difference, driving factors for the same being rising R&D activities for the development of more efficient vaccines, increasing geriatric population, and presence of key manufacturers in this region.
The Asia Pacific region is expected to be the fastest growing region over the forecast period. The factors favoring industrial growth are presence of high amount of target population, high level of unmet clinical needs, and rising economic growth of the countries in this region. More than 95% of human deaths owing to rabies are reported to occur in African and Asian countries. In Latin America, rabies by dog has been eliminated.
The major players of human rabies vaccines market are Sanofi Pasteur, Inc., Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Ltd., Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd., GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Merck & Co Inc., Wyeth pharmaceuticals, Berna Biotech Ltd., and Medimmune LLC.
Sanofi Pasteur and Novartis are the key manufacturers in the industry. Sanofi Pasteur manufactures Imogam vaccine, a human rabies immune globulin products and Imovax, a human diploid cell vaccine for rabies patients. Novartis manufactures RabAvert, a purified chick embryo cell vaccine. Both these manufacturers also provide patient assistance programs in which they provide proteins derived from human genes to uninsured and underinsured patients.
In December 2015, the WHO and World Organizations for Animal Health in collaboration with Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control, launched a framework named as zero human rabies death by 2030. For the first time, human and animal health sectors have came together to use a common strategy against this disease.
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