GVR Report cover Virtual Power Plant Market Size, Share, & Trends Report

Virtual Power Plant Market Size, Share, & Trends Analysis Report By Technology (Distributed Energy Resource, Demand Response, Mixed Asset), By End-user (Industrial, Commercial, Residential), By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2023 - 2030

  • Report ID: GVR-4-68040-146-6
  • Number of Pages: 130
  • Format: Electronic (PDF)
  • Historical Range: 2017 - 2021
  • Industry: Technology

Virtual Power Plant Market Size & Trends

The global virtual power plant market size was estimated to be USD 3.42 billion in 2022 and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 22.0% from 2023 to 2030. The expansion of renewable energy resources is playing a pivotal role in propelling the growth of the Virtual Power Plant (VPP) market. Various renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power exhibit intermittent generation patterns, and virtual power plants can effectively manage and balance the variability by integrating them with other energy resources. Furthermore, virtual power plants can aggregate dispersed renewable energy assets, such as rooftop solar installations and small wind turbines, into a single, well-coordinated virtual power plant. The consolidation of scattered sources enhances the dependability and scalability of renewable energy.

U.S. Virtual Power Plant market size and growth rate, 2023 - 2030

Increasing investments in expanding generation capacity positively influence the market growth for virtual power plants. Expanding generation capacity can place stress on grid infrastructure, but VPPs are crucial in mitigating this strain. Capable of intelligent energy resource management, virtual power plants can reduce the likelihood of power outages during periods of peak demand. Furthermore, the growth of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, has significantly contributed to the need for virtual power plants. VPPs can efficiently integrate these intermittent energy sources into the grid, optimizing their use and ensuring a stable power supply.

Technological advancements enable more sophisticated monitoring and control of distributed energy resources within virtual power plants. Improved precision and real-time optimization improve energy efficiency and reliability. IoT and machine learning technologies reduce downtime, extend the lifespan of assets, and ensure consistent performance. AI algorithms can optimize VPP operations by predicting energy generation and consumption patterns, improving load forecasting, and maximizing asset utilization. Moreover, these advanced technologies enable virtual power plants to offer customers greater visibility and control over their energy usage.

As the capacity of a virtual power plant grows, it can achieve economies of scale and reduce the cost per unit of energy managed. A larger virtual power plant can offer a wider range of grid services, such as frequency regulation, voltage support, and peak shaving. These services not only generate additional revenue for the virtual power plant but also contribute to grid stability, reducing the need for costly grid infrastructure upgrades. Moreover, a larger virtual power plant has greater market influence and can participate more effectively in energy markets. Virtual power plants also include selling surplus energy at favorable rates, participating in capacity markets, and offering grid support services.

Technology Insights

The demand response segment dominated the market in 2022 and accounted for a revenue share of over 48.0%. The demand response segment has emerged due to its vital role in achieving a sustainable and efficient energy ecosystem. Demand response programs enable consumers to actively engage in energy management by adjusting their electricity usage during peak demand periods. This not only reduces strain on the grid but also empowers users to save on energy costs. In the context of VPPs, demand response becomes a cornerstone for grid optimization. By aggregating the flexibility of numerous small-scale resources, VPPs, underpinned by demand response, enhance grid reliability and resilience while accommodating the integration of renewable energy sources.

The mixed asset segment is anticipated to register significant growth. Mixed asset virtual power plants can provide grid services such as frequency regulation, voltage support, and reactive power control, enhancing grid stability and reliability. Mixed asset virtual power plants help respond quickly to grid fluctuations, helping to mitigate the impact of intermittent renewable energy sources. By managing a mix of renewable energy sources and storage, mixed asset virtual power plants can smooth out the variability of renewables and ensure a consistent power supply to the grid. Thus, the capability to contribute to a more reliable and resilient energy system while reducing greenhouse gas emissions is expected to bode well for segment growth.

End-user Insights

The industrial segment dominated the market in 2022 and accounted for a global revenue share of over 41.0%. The industrial sector has emerged as a dominant force due to its unique energy demands and sustainability imperatives. Industries often operate power-intensive processes that require a stable and uninterrupted energy supply, making them highly receptive to the benefits of VPPs. These intelligent systems enable industrial end-users to effectively manage energy resources, optimize power consumption, and reduce electricity costs during peak demand periods.

Global Virtual Power Plantt market share and size, 2022

The residential segment is experiencing a noteworthy surge due to evolving consumer preferences and the growing emphasis on decentralized energy systems. Residential end-users are increasingly adopting distributed energy resources, such as rooftop solar panels and home energy storage solutions. VPPs empower these homeowners to transform their residences into mini power plants, allowing them to generate, store, and even sell excess energy back to the grid. This shift aligns with the rising interest in energy self-sufficiency and the desire to reduce electricity bills.

Regional Insights

North America dominated the virtual power plant market in 2022 and accounted for a revenue share of more than 36.0%. North American governments and regulatory bodies have focused on increasing the adoption of virtual power plants. Policies, incentives, and regulations at the federal, state, and local levels promote the integration of distributed energy resources, demand response, and grid modernization, all aligning with virtual power plant adoption and deployment. North American energy markets, particularly in the U.S., are relatively open and competitive. This environment encourages innovation and investment in technologies such as virtual power plants that can provide grid services and enhance energy efficiency.

Virtual Power Plant Market Trends, by Region, 2023 - 2030

The Asia Pacific region is projected to emerge as the fastest-growing market from 2023 to 2030. Many countries in the Asia Pacific region are experiencing significant urbanization and population growth. The rapid development in the region is expected to lead to increased energy demand, and virtual power plants can help efficiently manage and distribute energy resources in densely populated urban areas. Furthermore, virtual power plants enhance energy security by reducing dependence on centralized power generation and transmission infrastructure. Virtual power plants can provide backup power during power outages, which may be common in developing countries in the Asia Pacific region.

Key Companies & Market Share Insights

The competitive landscape of the VPP market is marked by intense rivalry and dynamic innovation. Established energy companies, technology giants, and startups are vying for prominence in this burgeoning sector. Major players like Siemens, Schneider Electric, and ABB are leveraging their extensive expertise in energy management and grid solutions to offer comprehensive VPP platforms. Tech companies such as Google and Tesla are also making strides with their energy management and storage solutions, while startups like Enbala and AutoGrid are introducing agile, cloud-based VPP solutions.

In January 2023, Ford unveiled the establishment of the Virtual Power Plant Partnership (VP3), a collaborative initiative spearheaded by the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI). The primary objective of VP3 is to expand the market, fostering the progression of cost-effective and dependable decarbonization within the electric sector while bolstering grid resilience. VP3 includes founding members Ford, General Motors, SPAN, OhmConnect, Google Nest, Olivine, SunPower, SwitchDin, Sunrun, and Virtual Peaker.

Key Virtual Power Plant Companies:

  • Siemens
  • Toshiba Energy Systems & Solutions
  • Next Kraftwerke
  • Hitachi, Ltd.
  • ABB
  • Tesla
  • AutoGrid Systems, Inc
  • Limejump Limited
  • Sunverge Energy, Inc.
  • Centrica

Virtual Power Plant Market Report Scope

Report Attribute


Market size value in 2023

USD 4.13 billion

Revenue forecast in 2030

USD 16.65 billion

Growth rate

CAGR of 22.0% from 2023 to 2030

Base year of estimation


Historical data

2017 - 2021

Forecast period

2023 - 2030

Quantitative units

Revenue in USD million/billion and CAGR from 2023 to 2030

Report coverage

Revenue forecast, company market share, competitive landscape, growth factors, and trends

Segments covered

Technology, end-user, region

Regional scope

North America; Europe; Asia Pacific; Latin America; Middle East & Africa

Country scope

U.S.; Canada; UK; Germany; France; China; India; Japan; South Korea; Australia; Brazil; Mexico; Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA); UAE; South Africa

Key companies profiled

Siemens; Toshiba Energy Systems & Solutions; Next Kraftwerke; Hitachi Ltd.; ABB; Tesla; AutoGrid Systems, Inc.; Limejump Limited; Sunverge Energy, Inc.; Centrica

Customization scope

Free report customization (equivalent to up to 8 analysts working days) with purchase. Addition or alteration to country, regional & segment scope

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Global Virtual Power Plant Market Report Segmentation

The report forecasts revenue growth at global, regional, and country levels and provides an analysis of the latest industry trends in each of the sub-segments from 2017 to 2030. For this study, Grand View Research has segmented the global virtual power plant market report based on technology, end-user, and region.

Global Virtual Power Plant Market Report Segmentation

  • Technology Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2017 - 2030)

    • Distributed Energy Resource

    • Demand Response

    • Mixed Asset

  • End-user Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2017 - 2030)

    • Industrial

    • Commercial

    • Residential

  • Regional Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2017 - 2030)

    • North America

      • U.S.

      • Canada

    • Europe

      • UK

      • Germany

      • France

    • Asia Pacific

      • China

      • India

      • Japan

      • South Korea

      • Australia

    • Latin America

      • Brazil

      • Mexico

    • Middle East & Africa

      • Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)

      • UAE

      • South Africa

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